Understanding Multiple Myeloma Lab Results

Understanding Your Lab Results

Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the blood—and the results of blood and other lab tests are important for diagnosing and monitoring multiple myeloma.

Your doctor or nurse will need to test your blood or urine on a regular schedule to see exactly how multiple myeloma affects you. These lab tests will help tell your doctor or nurse if your multiple myeloma is under control.

Below is a list of lab tests that are commonly used to keep an eye on multiple myeloma. Use the chart to help you better understand your results. Many of these terms and tests may be unfamiliar—you can read more about them in the glossary.

As you review these charts, please remember that “normal” ranges may vary slightly from lab to lab. Always rely on your doctor for a full explanation of what your results may mean.

Laboratory Assessment

Serum Protein Electrophoresis

 
Protein
Normal rangea
6-8 g/dL
Albumin
3.3-5.7 g/dL
α1-Globulin
0.1-0.4 g/dL
α2-Globulin
0.3-0.9 g/dL
β-Globulin
0.7-1.5 g/dL
γ-Globulin
0.5-1.4 g/dL

Immunoglobulin, Serum

 
IgA
Normal rangea
61-356 mg/dL
IgG
767-1590 mg/dL
IgM
37-286 mg/dL

Chemistry Profile

Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Normal rangea  7-20 mg/dL
Creatinine
Normal rangea  0.6-1.3 mg/dL
Calcium
Normal rangea  9-10.5 mg/dL
Creatinine clearance
Normal rangea 
Males: 97-137 mL/min
Females: 88-128 mL/min
Glucose, fasting
Normal rangea  70-100 mg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
Normal rangea  105-333 IU/L
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)
Normal rangea 
90-120 mL/min/1.73 m2

Serum-Free Light Chains

Free kappa
Normal rangea  3.3-19.4 mg/dL
Free lambda
Normal rangea  5.71-26.3 mg/dL
Kappa/lambda ratio
Normal rangea  0.26-1.65
β2-Microglobulin (B2M)
Normal rangea  0.70-1.80 mg/dL

Complete Blood Count (CBC) With Differential

White blood cell count (WBC)
Normal rangea  3.5-10.5x109/L
Red blood cell count (RBC)
Normal rangea 
Males: 4.32-5.72 x 1012/L
Females: 3.90-5.03 x 1012/L
Hemoglobin (Hgb)
Normal rangea
Males: 13.5-17.5 g/dL (135-175 g/L)
Females: 12.0-15.5 g/dL
(120-155 g/L)
Hematocrit (HCT)
Normal rangea 
Males: 38.8%-50.0%
Females: 34.9%-44.5%
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
Normal rangea  79.0-101.0 fL
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)
Normal rangea  25.0-35.0 pg
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)
Normal rangea  31.0-37.0 g/dL
Red blood cell distribution width (RDW)
Normal rangea  11.0%-16.0%
Platelets
Normal rangea  150-450 x 109/L
Lymphocytes
Normal rangea  24%-44%
Monocytes
Normal rangea  1.0%-10.0%
Absolute neutrophil count (ANC)
Normal rangea  1.7-7.0 x 109/L

Urine protein electrophoresis

Protein
<167 mg/24 hours
Albumin
<5 mg/dL
α1-Globulin
0%
α2-Globulin
0%
β-Globulin
0%
γ-Globulin
0%

aLab values are ranges based on individual labs; values may vary slightly from lab to lab.

Always discuss your test results with your healthcare team and make sure to ask questions to fully understand what they mean.

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