Understanding Your Lab Results
Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the blood—and the results of blood and other lab tests are important for diagnosing and monitoring multiple myeloma.
Your doctor or nurse will need to test your blood or urine on a regular schedule to see exactly how multiple myeloma affects you. These lab tests will help tell your doctor or nurse if your multiple myeloma is under control.
Below is a list of lab tests that are commonly used to keep an eye on multiple myeloma. Use the chart to help you better understand your results. Many of these terms and tests may be unfamiliar—you can read more about them in the glossary.
As you review these charts, please remember that “normal” ranges may vary slightly from lab to lab. Always rely on your doctor for a full explanation of what your results may mean.
Serum Protein Electrophoresis
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Normal rangea7-20 mg/dL
Normal rangea0.6-1.3 mg/dL
Normal rangea9-10.5 mg/dL
Males: 97-137 mL/min
Females: 88-128 mL/min
Normal rangea70-100 mg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
Normal rangea105-333 IU/L
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)
90-120 mL/min/1.73 m2
Normal rangea3.3-19.4 mg/dL
Normal rangea5.71-26.3 mg/dL
β2 -Microglobulin (B2M)
Normal rangea0.70-1.80 mg/dL
Complete Blood Count (CBC) With Differential
White blood cell count (WBC)
Normal rangea3.5-10.5 x 109/L
Red blood cell count (RBC)
Males: 4.32-5.72 x 1012/L
Females: 3.90-5.03 x 1012/L
Males: 13.5-17.5 g/dL (135-175 g/L)
Females: 12.0-15.5 g/dL (120-155 g/L)
Mean corpuscular volume (MCV)
Normal rangea79.0-101.0 fL
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH)
Normal rangea25.0-35.0 pg
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)
Normal rangea31.0-37.0 g/dL
Red blood cell distribution width (RDW)
Normal rangea150-450 x 109/L
Absolute neutrophil count (ANC)
Normal rangea1.7-7.0 x 109/L
Urine protein electrophoresis
aLab values are ranges based on individual labs; values may vary slightly from lab to lab.
Always discuss your test results with your healthcare team and make sure to ask questions to fully understand what they mean.