Multiple myeloma is a cancer of the blood—and the results of blood and other lab tests are important for diagnosing and monitoring multiple myeloma.
Your doctor or nurse will need to test your blood or urine on a regular schedule to see exactly how multiple myeloma affects you. These lab tests will help tell your doctor or nurse if your multiple myeloma is under control.
Below is a list of lab tests that are commonly used to keep an eye on multiple myeloma. Use the chart to help you better understand your results. Many of these terms and tests may be unfamiliar—you can read more about them in the glossary.
As you review these charts, please remember that “normal” ranges may vary slightly from lab to lab. Always rely on your doctor for a full explanation of what your results may mean.
Serum Protein Electrophoresis
Blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
Normal rangea7-20 mg/dL
Normal rangea0.6-1.3 mg/dL
Normal rangea9-10.5 mg/dL
Normal rangea Males: 97-137 mL/min Females: 88-128 mL/min
Normal rangea70-100 mg/dL
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
Normal rangea105-333 IU/L
Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)
Normal rangea 90-120 mL/min/1.73 m2
Serum-Free Light Chains
Normal rangea3.3-19.4 mg/dL
Normal rangea5.71-26.3 mg/dL
β2 -Microglobulin (B2M)
Normal rangea0.70-1.80 mg/dL
Complete Blood Count (CBC) With Differential
White blood cell count (WBC)
Normal rangea3.5-10.5 x 109/L
Red blood cell count (RBC)
Normal rangea Males: 4.32-5.72 x 1012/L Females: 3.90-5.03 x 1012/L